Peterson, Thurman S.. Analytic Geometry and Calculus.. New York (49 E.. 33rd Street); Harper & Brothers, 1955.. 456 P. Death Note English Subtitles Downloadlcalculus with analytic geometry by thurman peterson$5.50.. First published: April 1957.
Propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBX) imaging yields high contrast images of the lung where airways that overlap in projection coherently scatter the x-rays, giving rise to a speckled intensity due to interference effects. Our previous works have shown that total and regional changes in lung air volumes can be accurately measured from two-dimensional (2D) absorption or phase contrast images when the subject is immersed in a water-filled container. In this paper we demonstrate how the phase contrast speckle patterns can be used to directly measure absolute regional lung air volumes from 2D PBX images without the need for a water-filled container. We justify this technique analytically and via simulation using the transport-of-intensity equation and calibrate the technique using our existing methods for measuring lung air volume. Finally, we show the full capabilities of this technique for measuring regional differences in lung aeration.
Absolute resonance Raman cross sections are measured for Nile blue 690 perchlorate dissolved in ethylene glycol with excitation at 514, 531, and 568 nm. These values and the absorption spectrum are modeled using a time-dependent wave packet formalism. The excited-state equilibrium geometry changes are quantitated for 40 resonance Raman active modes, seven of which (590, 1141, 1351, 1429, 1492, 1544, and 1640 cm-1 ) carry 70% of the total resonance Raman intensity. This demonstrates that in addition to the prominent 590 and 1640 cm-1 modes, a large number of vibrational degrees of freedom are Franck-Condon coupled to the electronic transition. After exposure of the explicit vibrational progressions, the residual absorption linewidth is separated into its homogeneous [350 cm-1 half-width at half-maximum (HWHM)] and inhomogeneous (313 cm-1 HWHM) components through an analysis of the absolute Raman cross sections. The value of the electronic dephasing time derived from this study (25 fs) compares well to previously published results. These data should be valuable in multimode modeling of femtosecond experiments on Nile blue.
This article describes a high sensitivity spectrophotometer designed to detect the overall extinction of light by a single nanoparticle (NP) in the 10-4-10-5 relative range, using a transmission measurement configuration. We focus here on the simple and low cost scheme where a white lamp is used as a light source, permitting easy and broadband extinction measurements (300-900 nm). Using a microscope, in a confocal geometry, an increased sensitivity is reached thanks to a modulation of the NP position under the light spot combined with lock-in detection. Moreover, it is shown that this technique gives access to the absolute extinction cross-sections of the single NP provided that the incident electromagnetic field distribution experienced by the NP is accurately characterized. In this respect, an experimental procedure to characterize the light spot profile in the focal plane, using a reference NP as a probe, is also laid out. The validity of this approach is discussed and confirmed by comparing experimental intensity distributions to theoretical calculations taking into account the vector character of the tightly focused beam. The calibration procedure permitting to obtain the absolute extinction cross-section of the probed NP is then fully described. Finally, the force of the present technique is illustrated through selected examples concerning spherical and slightly elongated gold and silver NPs. Absolute extinction measurements are found to be in good consistency with the NP size and shape independently obtained from transmission electron microscopy, showing that spatial modulation spectroscopy is a powerful tool to get an optical fingerprint of the NP.
Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement. PMID:26977365
Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement.
To standardize reference dosimetry in radiation therapy, Task Group 51 (TG 51) of American Association of Physicist's in Medicine (AAPM) recommends that dose calibration measurements be made in a water tank at a depth of 10 cm and at a reference geometry. Methodologies are provided for calculating various correction factors to be applied in calculating the absolute dose. However the protocol does not specify the water temperature to be used. In practice, the temperature of water during dosimetry may vary considerably between independent sessions and different centers. In this work the effect of water temperature on absolute dosimetry has been investigated. Density of water varies with temperature, which in turn may impact the beam attenuation and scatter properties. Furthermore, due to thermal expansion or contraction air volume inside the chamber may change. All of these effects can result in a change in the measurement. Dosimetric measurements were made using a Farmer type ion chamber on a Varian Linear Accelerator for 6 MV and 23 MV photon energies for temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 °C. A thermal insulation was designed for the water tank in order to maintain relatively stable temperature over the duration of the experiment. Dose measured at higher temperatures were found to be consistently higher by a very small magnitude. Although the differences in dose were less than the uncertainty in each measurement, a linear regression of the data suggests that the trend is statistically significant with p-values of 0.002 and 0.013 for 6 and 23 MV beams respectively. For a 10 degree difference in water phantom temperatures, which is a realistic deviation across clinics, the final calculated reference dose can differ by 0.24% or more. To address this effect, first a reference temperature (e.g.22 °C) can be set as the standard; subsequently a correction factor can be implemented for deviations from this reference. Such a correction factor is expected to be of similar
The first absolute wind velocities above the Venusian cloud-tops were obtained using NASA/Goddard infrared heterodyne spectrometers at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and the McMath Solar Telescope. Beam-integrated Doppler displacements in the non-thermal emission core of (12)C(16)O2 10.33 micron R(8) sampled the line of sight projection of the lower thermospheric wind field (100 to 120 km). A field-usable Lamb-dip laser stabilization system, developed for spectrometer absolute frequency calibration to less than + or - 0.1 MHz, allowed S/N-limited line of sight velocity resolution at the 1 m/s level. The spectrometer's diffraction-limited beam (1.7 arc-second HPBW at McMath, 0.9 arc-second HPBW at IRTF), and 1 to 2 arc-second seeing, provided the spatial resolution necessary for circulation model discrimination. Qualitative analysis of beam-integrated winds provided definitive evidence of a dominant subsolar-antisolar circulation in the lower thermosphere. Beam-integrated winds were modelled with a 100x100 grid over the beam, incorporating beam spatial rolloff and across-the-beam gradients in non-thermal emission intensity, line of sight projection geometry, and horizontal wind velocity. Horizontal wind velocity was derived from a 2-parameter model wind field comprised of subsolar-antisolar and zonal components. Best-fit models indicated a dominant subsolar-antisolar flow with 120 m/s cross-terminator winds and a retrograde zonal component with a 25 m/s equatorial velocity. A review of all dynamical indicators above the cloud-tops allowed development of an integrated and self-consistent picture of circulation in the 70 to 200 km range.