The chapter introduces the theoretical underpinnings of task-based language teaching, with particular emphasis on tasks. The differences between communicative language teaching (CLT) and task-based language teaching (TBLT) are highlighted. Attention is then paid to how the task was used in the modeling stage of PPP in CLT. It is explained that PPP, by focusing all its attention on one form, does not easily extend to other forms, or even to other language phenomena. Consequently, mainly task-based research has been carried out in purely linguistic domains, such as vocabulary, spelling, grammar and discourse. A sub-chapter is included to review the limitations of PPP using native input, which has not produced the task-based learning expected. Then, it highlights new research, such as the broader PPP viewpoint, which is starting to investigate more generically how TBLT works. It presents some limitations of previous research and how TBLT is different from TSLT, including issues of discourse and coverage.
The acquisition of vocabulary competence is the major focus of job-oriented instruction. A task-based (work-unit) vocabulary teaching (TBVT) model presented in Task-based Vocabulary Training (TBV) emphasizes a structured and coherent presentation of a concept to be memorized. The model is based on the assumption that parallel presentation (PP), i.e., presenting the same item during the practice and production stages of a task, is the key to acquiring transferable knowledge (Tip and Spada 1998). TBV includes a presentation stage that relies on multiple practice opportunities, showing and describing simultaneously. Analysis of feedback and of learner production, compared with the model's original purpose, showed that it also supports conceptualization of a task. If the presentation is coherent and the learner has enough practice, then the learner can assemble concepts, increase knowledge and acquire transferable knowledge. The practice and presentation phases are well-designed to provide the learner with learning opportunities and to increase the quantity and quality of practice in a well-ordered sequence. d2c66b5586