The learning is the process through which the learner acquires new knowledge, skills and understanding. Learning fundamentally involves the creation of new understandings/symbols in the learner’s mind. Hence, students must become aware of, comprehend and actively integrate new or previously unlearned information. It is a continuous, lifelong process that begins at birth and never ends. Learning is distinct from any specific domain, such as science or maths.
If we consider learning systematically, we can identify four pre-requisites. Firstly, there is the need for a trigger—a prompt or situation that confronts the learner with material that he or she has not acquired previously. Secondly, is the need for adequate and sufficient motivation for learning. Thirdly, there is the need for a facilitating structure to support learning. Fourthly, there is the need for feedback for learning. As an example of the first consequence of a deficiency, if the learner is not exposed to a situation or a prompt, there will be no learning. There is no learning because there is no cause. If the learner is not motivated, although there may be some motivation, the motivation and learning will still be adversely affected. If there is no scaffolding and no feedback, learning will also be adversely affected. The last consequence is that, if any one of these four pre-requisites are absent, learning will not occur.
We also define a bottleneck as something that slows the rate of learning. We have identified four examples of a bottleneck: the time it takes to become a physically competent learner, unless a learning intervention is made; the amount of information retained at once; the problems of trying to learn at one time, rather than breaking the task into chunks; and the acknowledgement of the necessity for continuous feedback d2c66b5586