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The widespread adoption of XML holds out the promise that document structure can be exploited to specify precise database queries. However, the user may have only a limited knowledge of the XML structure, and hence may be unable to produce a correct XQuery, especially in the context of a heterogeneous information collection. The default is to use keyword-based search and we are all too familiar with how difficult it is to obtain precise answers by these means. We seek to address these problems by introducing the notion of Meaningful Lowest Common Ancestor Structure (MLCAS) for finding related nodes within an XML document. By automatically computing MLCAS and expanding ambiguous tag names, we add new functionality to XQuery and enable users to take full advantage of XQuery in querying XML data precisely and efficiently without requiring (perfect) knowledge of the document structure. Such a Schema-Free XQuery is potentially of value not just to casual users with partial knowledge of schema, but also to experts working in a data integration or data evolution context. In such a context, a schema-free query, once written, can be applied universally to multiple data sources that supply similar content under different schemas, and applied "forever" as these schemas evolve. Our experimental evaluation found that it was possible to express a wide variety of queries in a schema-free manner and have them return correct results over a broad diversity of schemas. Furthermore, the evaluation of a schema-free query is not expensive using a novel stack-based algorithm we develop for computing MLCAS: from 1 to 4 times the execution time of an equivalent schema-aware query.
Large writes are beneficial both on individual disks and on disk arrays, e.g., RAID-5. The presented design enables large writes of internal B-tree nodes and leaves. It supports both in-place updates and large append-only ("log-structured") write operations within the same storage volume, within the same B-tree, and even at the same time. The essence of the design is to make page migration inexpensive, to migrate pages while writing them, and to make such migration optional rather than mandatory as in log-structured file systems. The inexpensive page migration also aids traditional defragmentation as well as consolidation of free space needed for future large writes. These advantages are achieved with a very limited modification to conventional B-trees that also simplifies other B-tree operations, e.g., key range locking and compression. Prior proposals and prototypes implemented transacted B-tree on top of log-structured file systems and added transaction support to log-structured file systems. Instead, the presented design adds techniques and performance characteristics of log-structured file systems to traditional B-trees and their standard transaction support, notably without adding a layer of indirection for locating B-tree nodes on disk. The result retains fine-granularity locking, full transactional ACID guarantees, fast search performance, etc. expected of a modern B-tree implementation, yet adds efficient transacted page relocation and large, high-bandwidth writes. 2b1af7f3a8