Raw materials between 2005 and 2015) limits the Last Database margins of action and public spending. Conditional transfer programs, on the other hand, highly effective due to their impact on poverty and their low fiscal cost, fell short in terms of Last Database distribution. The second demographic transition, as well as the need to limit gender gaps, today requires expanding care policies and reforming weak pension and public health systems. The greater incorporation into the Last Database formal education system achieved in recent decades has not allowed, however, to sufficiently.
Reduce the internal Last Database gaps (between rich and poor) and external gaps (regarding educational achievement and quality in developed countries). In a world undergoing a technological revolution, deficits in research and development limit the ability of Latin Last Database American countries to insert themselves into global value chains as something more than producers of raw materials. This disability also has an impact on a growing dualization of local labor markets, by widening gaps between those who access high-productivity and Last Database high-paying jobs and those who provide services in increasingly precarious employment conditions. In this precarious labor force.
The Last Database migrant population has a growing participation, whose labor incorporation, in contexts of low unionization, puts downward pressure on wages and fuels Last Database xenophobic reactions on the part of displaced national workers. The housing problem also reflects a process of strong duality between those who access loans for real estate investment (from the purchase of apartments for rent to real estate development) and those who are forced to rent in a context in which the scarcity of supply and the hardening of credits for medium and low sectors have pushed prices up. In the case of Chile, for example, it is estimated that in the Last Database post-pandemic period some two million people lack access to decent housing. In this general social context, informality and even illegality have been revitalized as alternative channels for the aspiration of social mobility.